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Most powerful tools in the human body

The Power of Exosomes (EV’s)

Exosomes are best defined as extracellular vesicles (EV’s) that are released from Stem cells.

Released upon Stem Cell fusion of an intermediate endocytic compartment, the multivesicular body (MVB), with the plasma membrane, EX’s or EV’s are considered as transporters of miRNA that regulate specific intracellular mRNA activity.

Contributors to tumorigenesis and metastasis, inflammation and immune system activation, EVs are extremely important in providing novel tools and serve as a valuable therapeutic modality because of their ability to selectively transfer a wide variety of therapeutic payloads to cells.

Exosome Biogenesis

The formation of exosomes consists of three different stages:

In the first stage, endocytic vesicles are formed from the plasma membrane, creating an early endosome, which is then matured into late endosomes. The limiting membrane of these late endosomes undergoes inward budding, in turn forming vesicles inside the lumen. The accumulation of these ILVs inside the late endosomes is termed as MVBs. There are two known pathways describing the formation of MVBs. One involves the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) and another pathway is ESCRT independent. These MVBs can either fuse with lysosome for degradation or fused with the plasma membrane of the cell, thereby releasing ILVs into extracellular space as exosomes. 

Growing number of studies

Investigating the role of cell-secreted membrane bound vesicles to better understand pathophysiology of cancer

A growing number of studies are now being carried out to investigate the role of cell-secreted membrane bound vesicles to better understand pathophysiology of cancer and develop therapeutic targets for patient care and cure. Cancer cells with altered signaling pathways, especially those related to p53 response elements such as Steap3, may positively modulate exosome secretion “Extracellular vesicles” (EVs) are mainly described as extracellular membrane-limited cell-derived mobile vesicles in the extracellular space. …

Immense potential to significantly change treatment options